Settled in 1686 and incorporated in 1714, Littleton was the site of Nashoba Plantation, the sixth Praying Indian village, established by John Eliot on land between Lake Nagog and Fort Pond, some of which is part of the present-day Sarah Doublet Forest.
Minutemen and militia of Littleton fought at Concord and the Battle Road on April 19, 1775. Described as a “Yankee Town”, Littleton remained dry during prohibition. It was not until 1960 that alcohol was sold here with the first bar allowed in the 1980s.
Principally agricultural in character Littleton’s location between Fort Devens and Hanscom Air Force Base has made the community welcoming to military retirees. The arrival of Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC, now part of Hewlett-Packard) in the 1970s made Littleton part of the Boston-area high-tech corridor.
Neighborhoods around Mill Pond, Long Lake, Forge Village, and Spectacle Pond include numerous summer cottages or "camps" that have been converted into year-round residences.